Spatio-temporal variation of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in public supply reservoirs of the semi-arid region of Brazil
Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in reservoirs of the semi-arid region
Cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) have become increasingly frequent and intense in public supply reservoirs as a result of eutrophication and global climate change. The semi-arid region of Brazil has a well documented history of CyanoHABs but the underlying factors that control the excessive proliferation of these organisms and the production of their bioactive secondary metabolites are not comprehensively understood. This study aimed to identify the environmental factors that explain the spatial and temporal variations in the abundance of cyanobacteria and the concentration of cyanotoxins (microcystins, saxitoxins, and cylindrospermopsin) in semi-arid reservoirs. The following hypotheses were tested: (a) the largest biovolumes of potential toxin producing cyanobacteria occur when cyanotoxin concentrations are highest; and (b) the environmental factors that explain variations in biovolume of cyanobacteria also explain changes in cyanotoxins concentrations. Samples were taken from four reservoirs located in the Northeast region of Brazil, over a three-month period (October 2016 and February and June 2017). Of the 24 species of cyanobacteria identified, 13 were potentially toxin-producing. Physicochemical variables such as water volume of the reservoir, water transparency, soluble reactive phosphorus, and total phosphorus explained the abundance of cyanobacteria and the levels of cyanotoxins. These results corroborate the hypothesis that similar physicochemical conditions influence the abundance and diversity of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins. Cyanobacterial blooms composed of more than one potential toxin producing species were observed in the studied reservoirs, where potential microcystin-producing species were the most common. Microcystins and saxitoxins were detected in all the reservoirs studied, while cylindrospermopsin and the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii were simultaneously recorded in only one reservoir (Camalaú Reservoir). Cylindrospermopsin was only detected in a reservoir for the first time in the State of Paraíba. Canonical redundancy analysis showed that the cyanotoxins were related to potential toxin producing species. These results corroborate the proposed hypothesis that there is a correlation between cyanotoxins and the biomass of potential producers. Also, there were situations where cyanotoxins were detected without the presence of potential producers. These results demonstrate the need for reassessment of potential toxin producing species of cyanobacteria in semi-arid reservoirs. This may lead to the identification and characterization of novel producers of these bioactive secondary metabolites.
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