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A long-term study implemented in the Amur River basin enabled us to generate an updated checklist of 606 valid species in Chironomidae (Diptera) which are composed of 129 genera and six subfamilies, with 98 (17%) described new species belonging to 46 genera. Among the 98 recently described species, 46 ones (45%), were considered as possible endemics and sub-endemics. The numbers of species and genera by subfamilies is as follows: Podonominae (3 species; 3 genera), Tanypodinae (17; 9), Diamesinae (25; 11), Prodiamesinae (7; 3), Orthocladiinae (307; 57) and Chironominae (247; 46). The higher numbers of species (421 and 410, respectively) were recorded in the Lower and Middle parts of the Amur River basin, as compared with the Upper part of the basin. Most of the recorded chironomids (387 species, 67%) are Palaearctic in distribution, while others (191, 33%) are widely Holarctic. Species with Palaearctic distribution mostly have the following range types: East Palaearctic continental (23%); East Palaearctic continental-insular (20%); Palaearctic transpalaearctic (14%); Palaearctic amphi-Eurasian (10%).