Effect of water quality on the feeding ecology of axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum



  • Diego de Jesus Chaparro-Herrera Ciencias Biologicas UNAM, FES Iztacala, Mexico.
  • Sarma Nandini | nandini@unam.mx FES Iztacla, División de Investigación y Posgrado, Mexico.
  • S.S.S. Sarma División de Investigación y Posgrado UNAM, FES Iztacala, Mexico.


Ambystoma mexicanum, a highly endangered species, is endemic to lake Xochimilco (Mexico City, Mexico) which currently is being negatively affected by the introduction of Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia) and water pollution. During the first weeks of development, when mortality is the highest, Ambystoma mexicanumdepends on a diet of zooplankton. The aim of this study was to check whether contamination levels in lake Xochimilco influence zooplankton consumption by similar size classes of A. mexicanum and Oreochromis niloticus. In this study, we analysed changes in the functional responses and prey preference of A. mexicanum and larval Tilapia in two media, one with filtered lake Xochimilco water and another one with reconstituted water. As prey we used cladocerans (Moina macrocopa, Alona glabra, Macrothrix triserialis and Simocephalus vetulus) and ostracods (Heterocypris incongruens). Zooplankton was offered in 5 different densities, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 ind./mL. Prey consumption by A. mexicanum varied in relation to the species offered and age of the larvae. From the first week to the eighth week prey consumption by A. mexicanum increased by 57%. Our functional response tests showed that regardless of the prey type, prey consumption by A. mexicanum was lower in the contaminated water from lake Xochimilco. Among the zooplankton offered in the contaminated environment predators preferred smaller and slower moving microcrustaceans such as Alona glabra and Heterocypris incongruens. Furthermore, O. niloticus preferred prey such as Moina macrocopa and Macrothrix triserialis in the contaminated medium and was more voracious than the axolotl. Our results indicate that both water quality of the lake and the presence of the more resistant exotic fish adversely impact the survival of this endangered amphibian.

Author Biographies

Diego de Jesus Chaparro-Herrera, Ciencias Biologicas UNAM, FES Iztacala
PhD student
Sarma Nandini, FES Iztacla, División de Investigación y Posgrado
Prof. Titular C, División de Investigación y Posgrado
S.S.S. Sarma, División de Investigación y Posgrado UNAM, FES Iztacala
Profesor Titular C



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Original Articles
Supporting Agencies
(CONACyT) for a doctoral fellowship (CVU 168, 672) - DGAPA-PAPIIT (IN213413 and IN213513) for financial assistance.
Ambystoma mexicanum, Oreochromis niloticus, invasive species, zooplankton, water pollution.
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How to Cite
Chaparro-Herrera D de J, Nandini S, Sarma S. Effect of water quality on the feeding ecology of axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum. J Limnol [Internet]. 2013 Oct. 21 [cited 2021 Oct. 18];72(3):e46. Available from: https://jlimnol.it/index.php/jlimnol/article/view/jlimnol.2013.e46

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