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Metadiaptomus chevreuxi (Guerne & Richard 1894), a diaptomid calanoid copepod belonging to the subfamily Paradiaptominae, has been found in two neighbouring temporary pools in the Egadi Archipelago (Sicily, southern Italy). This finding constitutes the first record of a representative of this subfamily in Italy and the second known European record for this species. M. chevreuxi, commonly found in the arid areas of Maghreb, has already been reported to occur in Mallorca Island (Balearic Archipelago, Spain), while it seems to be rare in the eastern quadrants of the Mediterranean basin. The characteristics of the new Italian site are briefly described and drawings of morphological details of adult specimens are provided. The occurrence of M. chevreuxi in Western Sicily is in accordance with the supposed merging of North-eastern and South-western freshwater calanoid faunas in this area. Additional information on the distribution of calanoid species in the island and its biogeographic significance is also offered.
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